Who Invented the Seismograph?
Jan 09, · In , Sir James Alfred Ewing, Thomas Gray, and John Milne—all British scientists working in Japan—began to study earthquakes. They founded the Seismological Society of Japan, which funded the invention of seismographs. Milne invented the horizontal pendulum seismograph in . In the modern world, John Milne invented the first seismograph in This seismograph detected earthquakes through a long pendulum that was attached to a stylus. When the earth shook, the stylus then wrote on a carbon-coated paper. This produced a pattern that detected the .
Initially, until the machine began to be used on a larger scale no one believed him. The Ancient China Seismograph has been lost however sources claim that it was made out of high-quality bronze, was 5.
Each of its 8 directions was decorated with dragons and a bronze toad structure was present at the ground of each. The mouth of the dragon was made of a metallic ball which would trigger and drop into the bronze toad when an earthquake occurred. The theory of inertia operated here and the mechanics of the machine operated inside the system. When a movement of the ground displaced a pendulum along with the jar in which the pendulum was placed, the ball dropped and triggered via the lever and the gear.
An earthquake in the western zone of China was detected via this machine and that was when the people started believing in the concept. The modern-day Seismograph was invented only in about years after the first Seismograph was invented and was derived from Zhangs Concept. Skip define what is a refugee according to the 1951 convention content.
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The first true seismograph, according to Italian seismologists, was created in by Italian physicist Filippo Cecchi. The Cecchi seismograph also used pendulums, but it was the first to record the relative motion of the pendulums with respect to Earth’s ground motions as a function of time. In , the British geologist John Milne, often known as the father of seismology developed the first accurate seismograph in Japan. Russian Prince, Boris Golitsyn in invented the first electromagnetic seismograph. < When was Dr Pepper invented? When was the School Bus invented? >. John Milne was the English seismologist and geologist who invented the first modern seismograph and promoted the building of seismological stations - Milne invented the horizontal pendulum seismograph in Who Invented the Seismograph?
Seismograph , instrument that makes a record of seismic waves caused by an earthquake , explosion, or other Earth -shaking phenomenon. The terms seismograph and seismometer are often used interchangeably; however, whereas both devices may detect and measure seismic waves, only a seismograph possesses the capacity to record the phenomena. A record produced by a seismograph on a display screen or paper printout is called a seismogram.
An early seismic instrument called the seismoscope made no time record of ground oscillations but simply indicated that shaking had occurred. A Chinese scholar, Zhang Heng , invented such an instrument as early as ce. It was cylindrical in shape with eight dragon heads arranged around its upper circumference, each with a ball in its mouth.
Around the lower circumference were eight frogs, each directly under a dragon head. In Italian scientist Luigi Palmieri designed a seismograph that consisted of several U-shaped tubes filled with mercury and oriented toward the different points of the compass.
When the ground shook, the motion of the mercury made an electrical contact that stopped a clock and simultaneously started a recording drum on which the motion of a float on the surface of mercury was registered.
This device thus indicated time of occurrence and the relative intensity and duration of the ground motion. The basic problem in measuring ground motions is to attain a steady point that remains fixed when the ground moves. Various types of pendulums have been used for that purpose. The simplest type is a common pendulum in which a heavy mass is suspended by a wire or rod from a fixed point as in a clock.
Other forms are the inverted pendulum, in which a heavy mass is fixed to the upper end of a vertical rod pointed at its lower end, and the horizontal pendulum, in which a rod with a mass on its end is suspended at two points so as to swing in a nearly horizontal plane instead of a vertical plane.
After a series of earthquakes struck near Perthshire, Scotland, in , a seismometer with an inverted pendulum was installed near Comrie in The first true seismograph, according to Italian seismologists, was created in by Italian physicist Filippo Cecchi. The motions produced by seismic waves would activate a clock, and the recording surface which tracked ground motion advanced 1 cm 0.
Seismograph developments occurred rapidly in when Scottish physicist Sir James Alfred Ewing , Scottish engineer Thomas Gray, and English geologist John Milne , who were working in Japan at the time, began to study earthquakes.
Following a severe earthquake that occurred at Yokohama near Tokyo in that year, they organized the Seismological Society of Japan. Milne successfully used that seismograph to record several earthquakes in Japan.
Then, after returning to England, he established a small worldwide seismographic network using such instruments. The horizontal pendulum seismograph was improved greatly after World War II. The Press-Ewing seismograph , developed in the United States for recording long-period waves , was widely used throughout the world. That device employed a Milne-type pendulum, but the pivot supporting the pendulum was replaced by an elastic wire to avoid friction.
Article Introduction Development of the first seismographs Basic principles of the modern seismograph Applications of the seismograph Show more. Videos Images. Additional Info. More About Contributors Article History. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter.
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Learn with geophysicist Horst Rademacher on the working of a seismometer, how it records data by simulating an earthquake in the classroom. Geophysicist Horst Rademacher of the University of California, Berkeley, simulating an earthquake in the classroom and explaining how a simple seismograph records Earth's shaking.
Britannica Quiz. The Solid Earth Quiz. The term geology refers, according to Britannica, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth. How solid is your knowledge of all things geological? Test your knowledge by taking this quiz. Model of Zhang Heng's seismoscope seismograph , which he invented about ce to detect earthquakes. A sketch of Italian scientist Luigi Palmieri's seismograph. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
Subscribe Now. Horizontal pendulum seismograph, as invented by English seismologist John Milne in A boom B , to which the mass M was attached, was suspended horizontally by a pivot P and a silk thread T fixed to a point above the pivot. A thin plate C , in which a narrow slit was cut parallel to the boom, was attached to the end of the boom. A similar plate with a slit at right angles to the upper plate was fixed on the top of a box containing a recording drum D.
A ray of light from an oil lamp passed through both slits and formed a small spot of light on a sheet of light-sensitive graph paper bromide paper wrapped on the recording drum. The Press-Ewing seismograph, developed in the United States for recording long-period waves, was widely used throughout the world. Load Next Page.