Types and Effects of Water Pollution
Mar 10, · Half of China’s population cannot access water that is safe for human consumption and two-thirds of China’s rural population relies on tainted water. Water pollution in China is such a problem that there could be “catastrophic consequences for future generations,” according to the World Bank.. China’s water supply has been contaminated by the dumping of toxic human and industrial waste. Water scarcity in Africa is predicted to reach dangerously high levels by It is estimated that about two-third of the world's population may suffer from fresh water shortage by The main causes of water scarcity in Africa are physical and economic scarcity, rapid population growth, and climate tiktoksmmen.com scarcity is the lack of fresh water resources to meet the standard water demand.
This article is available in: Ie Afrikaans Sotho Zulu. Water is life. For millions for years life on earth has been dependant on water for survival. The blue colour is, in fact, the amount of water that is present on the surface.
But where does water come from? The water that we have on earth is very old. The water that we are using plolution was used by the dinosaurs pollutiln of years ago. This is because the earth recycles its water, i. This recycling of water is called the water cycle.
Plllution exists on earth as water droplets and is found in oceans, rivers, lakes, dams, swimming pools, the soil, etc. Heat from the sun causes some of these water droplets to change from a liquid to a gas, called water vapour. This is called evaporation. The water vapour then rises into the atmosphere. As the water vapour rises it cools down and changes from a gas to a liquid, and thus back into water droplets. This is called condensation.
When these water droplets are in the atmosphere they poplution together how to grow bigger tomatoes at home form clouds. When these droplets pollutiom too heavy to stay in the atmosphere they fall to the earth as rain, hail, snow, etc.
This is called precipitation. Some of these water droplets fall into oceans, some into rivers and streams, some into lakes and dams, what is causing water pollution in africa some onto the land where it either seeps into the ground or runs off the surface into rivers, lakes, dams or the ocean. These cauing droplets can then be reheated by the sun and the whole cycle repeats itself.
The amount of water on earth is constant and cannot be increased or decreased, but it is unevenly distributed across the earth. Wager Africa receives an annual rainfall of millimetres whereas the rest of the earth receives millimetres. Thus South Africa is classified as a water-stressed country. There is also cwusing distribution of rainfall across South Africa. The eastern half of the country is much wetter than the western half due to causig nature of the weather conditions.
South Africa ni experiences alternating periods of droughts and floods which affects the amount of water pollutio South Africa. Wuat addition, hot dry conditions result in a high evaporation rate.
Scientists predict that with global warming, South Africa will experience much wetter wet seasons and much drier dry seasons, resulting in an increase in floods and droughts. Drought Flood s. Presently there are a large number of dams all how to get youtube on roku 1 South Africa that store this precious water.
There are also a number of water transfer schemes that move water from one catchment via pumps, pipes and canals into another catchment. Gauteng is supplied with water from the Vaal Dam catchment, which includes the Vaal River, Wilge River and all their tributaries.
There are two water transfer schemes that feed into the Vaal Dam catchment, namely the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, which obtains water from the mountains of Lesotho, and the Thukela-Vaal Water Transfer Scheme, which obtains water from Kwa-Zulu Natal and what are the top 10 biggest countries in the world released into the Vaal Dam catchment when needed.
According to the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs, the demand for water will outstrip supply in Gauteng byand in the whole of South Africa by how to use turbocad mac South Africa cannot afford to build more dams and water transfer schemes as they cost large amounts of money.
Wated water in South Africa is in great demand, and as the human population increases with its increasing needs for survival, the greater is the demand for water. A further problem adding to this demand is water quality.
Water quality is defined as water which is safe, drinkable and appealing to all life on earth. In South Africa the scarce fresh water is decreasing in quality because of an increase in pollution and the destruction of river catchments, caused by urbanisation, deforestation, damming of rivers, destruction of wetlands, industry, mining, agriculture, energy use and accidental water pollution.
As the human population increases, there is an increase in pollution and catchment destruction. Where Does our Water Come From? Activity How is Wastewater Cleaned? Where would you like to live? Water Wise is a Rand Water initiative.
Effects Of Ocean Pollution
The major causes of water pollution include sewage and other oxygen-demanding wastes, urbanization, agro-chemical wastes, thermal pollution, industrial wastes, nutrient enrichment, acid rain. Jan 07, · Thermal pollution of the ocean waters is caused by the release of hot waters from power plants and processing companies into the ocean. It leads to a localized change in water temperature that, in turn, reduces the volume of oxygen dissolved in the water, killing marine life. There are a range of environmental issues in Southern Africa, such as climate change, land, water, deforestation, land degradation, and tiktoksmmen.com Southern Africa region itself, except for South Africa, produces less carbon emissions but is a recipient of climate change impacts characterized by changes in precipitation, extreme weather events and hot temperatures.
Water scarcity in Africa is predicted to reach dangerously high levels by It is estimated that about two-third of the world's population may suffer from fresh water shortage by The main causes of water scarcity in Africa are physical and economic scarcity, rapid population growth, and climate change.
Water scarcity is the lack of fresh water resources to meet the standard water demand. The Report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations indicates that growing water scarcity is now one of the leading challenges for sustainable development. This is because an increasing number of the river basins have reached conditions of water scarcity through the combined demands of agriculture and other sectors.
Impacts of water scarcity in Africa range from health women and children are particularly affected to education, agricultural productivity, sustainable development as well as the potential for more water conflicts. To adequately address the issue of water scarcity in Africa, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa emphasizes the need to invest in the development of Africa's potential water resources to reduce unnecessary suffering, ensure food security , and protect economic gains by effectively managing droughts, floods, and desertification.
When there is a geographic and temporal imbalance between the demand of freshwater and its availability, that is known as water scarcity. In this regard, scarcity can be defined as either the scarcity in availability due to physical shortage or scarcity in access due to lack of adequate infrastructure.
Water scarcity or lack of safe drinking water physical water scarcity is one of the world's leading problems affecting more than 1. Some of these differences in clean water availability can be attributed to Africa's extreme climates.
Although Sub-Saharan Africa has a plentiful supply of rainwater, it is seasonal and unevenly distributed, leading to frequent floods and droughts. The latest report of the SDG goal 6 has mentioned various facts about water status in sub-Saharan Africa including the lack of hygiene and its impact on the nutritional status especially among children due to increased rate of infectious diseases.
Water scarcity is both a natural and human-made phenomenon. Economic scarcity refers to the fact that finding a reliable source of safe water is time-consuming and expensive. Alternatively, physical scarcity is when there simply is not enough water within a given region. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa estimates that million out of the million who live on the African continent live in a water-scarce environment.
This significantly impacts the availability, quality and quantity of water due to reduced river flows and reservoir storage, lowering of water tables and drying up of aquifers in the northern and southern regions of Africa. Included in the category of physical scarcity is the issue of overexploitation. For ground water, once the pump is installed, the policy of many countries is to only constrain removal based on the cost of electricity, and in many cases subsidize electricity costs for agricultural uses, which damages incentives to conserve such resources.
The majority of Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from economic scarcity because of the population's lack of the necessary monetary means to utilize adequate sources of water. Both political reasons and ethnic conflict have contributed to this unequal distribution of resources. Out of the two forms of water scarcity, economic scarcity can be addressed quickly and effectively with simple infrastructure to collect rainwater from roofs and dams, but this requires economic resources that many of these areas lack due to an absence of industrial development and widespread poverty.
Large parts of Africa suffer from economic water scarcity; developing water infrastructure in those areas could, therefore, help to reduce poverty.
Critical conditions often arise for economically poor and politically weak communities living in an already dry environment. Consumption increases with GDP per capita: in most developed countries the average amount is around — liters daily.
In developing countries e. African countries such as Mozambique , average daily water consumption per capita was below 10 L. This is against the backdrop of international organizations, which recommend a minimum of 20 L of water not including the water needed for washing clothes , available at most 1 km from the household. Increased water consumption is correlated with increasing income, as measured by GDP per capita.
In countries suffering from water shortages water is the subject of speculation. Over the past century, the global population has more than doubled. In fact, Africa will account for nearly half of global population growth over the next two decades. At the same time, the water resources in African region are gradually diminishing due to the habitation in places that were previously water sources. The growing population will only exacerbate the water scarcity crisis as more pressure is placed on the availability and access of water resources.
This is the same experience in Africa. Big cities like Lagos, Kinshasa and Nairobi have doubled their population within a fifteen years period. The rising population in African cities creates a link to the imbalance between the supply of water and the demands in those cities. Aside urbanization contributing to the imbalance between the demand and supply of water, urbanization also causes an increase in water pollution.
As a result of more people moving into cities, there is increased deposit of sewage and waste into water bodies. Also, sewage system are inefficiently run, such that leaks from sewage pipes are left unattended to, which eventually leak into the soil and causes further pollution of underground water.
Climate change includes both the global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases , and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.
Simultaneously, clouds move farther away from the equator towards the pole by a climate-change phenomenon called Hadley Cell Expansion. This deprives equatorial regions like sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Central America of life-giving rainwater.
Climate change is disrupting weather patterns, leading to extreme weather events, unpredictable water availability, exacerbating water scarcity and contaminating water supplies. According to the Africa Partnership Forum, "Although Africa is continent least responsible for climate change , it is particularly vulnerable to the effects," and the long-term impacts include, "changing rainfall patterns affecting agriculture and reducing food security; worsening water security; decreasing fish resources in large lakes due to rising temperature; shifting vector-borne diseases; rising sea level affecting low-lying coastal areas with large populations; and rising water stress".
The Human Development Report goes on to explain that because of Africa's dependence on rain-fed agriculture, widespread poverty, and weak capacity, the water issues caused by climate change impact the continent much more violently compared to developed nations that have the resources and economic diversity to deal with such global changes. This heightened potential for drought and falling crop yields will most likely lead to increased poverty, lower incomes, less secure livelihoods, and an increased threat of chronic hunger for the poorest people in sub-Saharan Africa.
Currently, more than to sub-Saharan Africans live in a water-scarce location, and it has been predicted to get worse if the trend of climate change continues. The most immediately apparent impact of water scarcity in Africa is on the continent's health.
With a complete lack of water, humans can only live up to 3 to 5 days on average. Globally, 2. Water scarcity has a big impact on hygiene. When infected with these waterborne diseases, those living in African communities suffering from water scarcity cannot contribute to the community's productivity and development because of a simple lack of strength.
Additionally, individual, community and governmental economic resources are sapped by the cost of medicine to treat waterborne diseases, which takes away from resources that might have potentially been allocated in support of food supply or school fees. With better water conditions, the burden on healthcare would be less substantial, while a healthier workforce  would stimulate economic growth and help alleviate the prevalence of poverty.
Along with waterborne diseases and unsafe drinking water, malnutrition is also a major cause of death in Africa. Some of the malnutrition is caused by reduced agricultural production in some regions of Africa due to water scarcity. According to a review an estimated million children under age 5 are stunted , most of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. African women and men's divergent social positions lead to differences in water responsibilities, rights, and access,  and so African women are disproportionally burdened by the scarcity of clean drinking water.
In most African societies, women are seen as the collectors, managers, and guardians of water, especially within the domestic sphere that includes household chores, cooking, washing, and child rearing. Water scarcity exacerbates this issue, as indicated by the correlation of decrease in access to water with a decrease in combined primary , secondary , and tertiary enrollment of women.
For African women, their daily role in clean water retrieval often means carrying the typical jerrycan that can weigh over 40 pounds when full  for an average of six kilometers each day.
Also, in terms of health, access to safe and clean drinking water leads to greater protection from water-borne illnesses and diseases which increases women's capabilities to attend school. The detriment water scarcity has on educational attainment for women, in turn, affects the social and economic capital of women in terms of leadership, earnings, and working opportunities.
The lost number of potential school days and education hinders the next generation of African women from breaking out of the cycle of unequal opportunity for gainful employment, which serves to perpetuate the prevalence of unequal opportunity for African women and adverse effects associated with lacking income from gainful employment. Thus, improved access to water influences women's allocation of time, level of education, and as a result their potential for higher wages associated with recognized and gainful employment.
In addition, the issue of water scarcity in Africa prevents many young children from attending school and receiving an education. These children are expected to not only aid their mothers in water retrieval but to also help with the demands of household chores that are more time-intensive because of a lack of readily available water. Furthermore, a lack of clean water means the absence of sanitary facilities and latrines in schools.
This affects more female children as they hit puberty. In terms of lost educational opportunity, it is estimated that this would result in million more school attendance days per year if adequate investment were made in drinking water and sanitation. For parents, an increase in access to reliable water resources reduces vulnerability to shocks, which allows for increased livelihood security and for families to allocate a greater portion of their resources to care for their children.
This means improved nutrition for children, a reduction in school days missed due to health issues, and greater flexibility to spend resources on providing for the direct costs associated with sending children to school. Also, if families escape forced migration due to water scarcity, children's educational potential is even further improved with better stability and uninterrupted school attendance.
The Human Development Report reports that human use of water is mainly allocated to irrigation and agriculture. Water, agriculture, nutrition, and health have always been linked but recently became recognized and researched as a cause and effect loop. With the increasing variability of current weather patterns the crops and harvests are more prone to being affected by droughts and floods.
Food and nutrition security is defining the development agenda in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to the UN Economic Commission for Africa and New Partnership for Africa's Development, "irrigation is key to achieving increased agricultural production that is important for economic development and for attaining food security". Most of the rural African communities are currently not tapping into their irrigation potential.
Starting in the s donors like the World Bank supported these African governments in the development of irrigations systems. But for many regions, there is a lack of financial and human resources to support infrastructure and technology required for proper crop irrigation. Because of this, the impact of droughts, floods, and desertification is greater in terms of both African economic loss and human life loss due to crop failure and starvation. Additionally, lack of water causes many Africans to use wastewater for crop growth, causing a large number of people to consume foods that can contain chemicals or disease-causing organisms transferred by the wastewater.
These methods allow for greywater to be purified or filtered to remove biological hazards from the water that would not be safe to use in agriculture. Poverty is directly related to the accessibility of clean drinking water- without it, the chances of breaking out of the poverty trap are extremely slim. This concept of a "water poverty trap" was developed by economists specifically observing sub-Saharan Africa and refers to a cycle of financial poverty, low agricultural production, and increasing environmental degradation.
Because of this, the UN estimates that Sub-Saharan Africa alone loses 40 billion potential work hours per year collecting water. The population growth across the world and the climate change are two factors that together could give rise to water conflicts in many parts of the world.
In the past, countries have worked to resolve water tensions through negotiation, but there is predicted to be an escalation in aggression over water accessibility.
Africa's susceptibility to potential water-induced conflict can be separated into four regions: the Nile , Niger , Zambezi , and Volta basins. Especially for Mali — one of the world's poorest countries — the river is vital for food, water and transportation, and its over usage is contributing to an increasingly polluted and unusable water source. Additionally, in , Zimbabwe caused the region to experience the worst flooding in recent history when the country opened the Kariba Dam gates.
Paired with the constraints this also puts on Ghana's ability to provide power for the area, this could potentially contribute to regional instability. At this point, federal intelligence agencies have issued the joint judgment that in the next ten years, water issues are not likely to cause internal and external tensions that lead to the intensification war. But if current rates of consumption paired with climatic stress continue, levels of water scarcity in Africa are predicted by UNECA to reach dangerously high levels by This means that by there is the potential for a shift in water scarcity's potential to contribute to armed conflict.