A phonograph disc, or record, stores a replica of sound waves as a series of undulations in a sinuous groove inscribed on its rotating surface by the stylus. When the record is played back, another stylus responds to the undulations, and its motions are then reconverted into sound. Phonograph turntable with 33 1/3 -RPM vinyl disc. Feb 04, · A phonograph, gramophone, or record player, is a device which is designed to play back recorded music.
A phonographin its later forms also called a gramophone as a trademark sinceas a generic name in the UK since or since the s called a record playeris a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.
The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record".
To recreate how to send a sim to work in sims freeplay sound, the surface is similarly rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it, very faintly reproducing the recorded sound.
In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring hornor directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope -type earphones.
The phonograph was invented in by Thomas Edison. In the s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph what is bronchitis caused from to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, which is predominantly used in many languages.
Later improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, and the sound and equalization systems. The disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century.
In the s, phonograph use on a standard record player declined sharply due to the rise of the cassette tapecompact discand other digital recording formats. However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophilesDJscollectorsand turntablists particularly in hip hop and electronic dance musicand have undergone a revival since the s.
Usage of terminology is not uniform across the English-speaking world see below. In more modern usage, the playback device is often called a "turntable", "record player", how to solve cyber crime " record changer ", although each of these terms denote categorically distinct items.
When used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are often colloquially called "decks". The new term may have been influenced by the existing words phonographic and phonographywhich referred to a system of phonetic shorthand ; in The New York Times carried an advertisement for "Professor Webster's phonographic class", and in the What does the song jimmy crack corn mean York State Teachers Association tabled a motion to "employ a phonographic recorder" to record its meetings.
Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of "phonograph", but in common practice the word has come to mean historic technologies of sound recordinginvolving audio-frequency modulations of a physical trace or groove.
In the lateth and earlyth centuries, "Phonograph", "Gramophone", "Graphophone", "Zonophone", "Graphonole" and the like were still brand names specific to various makers of sometimes very different i. In British English"gramophone" may refer to any sound-reproducing machine using disc recordswhich were introduced and popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company. Originally, "gramophone" was a proprietary trademark of that company and any use of the name by competing makers of disc records was vigorously prosecuted in the courts, but in an English court decision decreed that it had become a generic term;  it has been so used in the UK and most Commonwealth countries ever since.
Often the home record player was part of a system that included a radio radiogram and, later, might also play audiotape cassettes. From aboutsuch a system began to be described as a "hi-fi" high-fidelity, monophonic or a "stereo" most systems being stereophonic by the mids. In American English"phonograph", properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the s to include cylinder-playing machines made by others.
But it was then considered strictly incorrect to apply it to Emile Berliner 's upstart Gramophone, a very different machine which played discs although Edison's original Phonograph patent how to register a dns name the use of discs .
By the time of the First World War, the mass advertising and popularity of the Victrola a line of disc-playing machines characterized by their concealed horns sold by the Victor Talking Machine Company was leading to widespread generic use of the word "victrola" for any machine that played discs, which were generally called "phonograph records" or simply "records", but almost never "Victrola records".
After electrical disc-playing machines appeared on the market in the late s, often combined with a radio receiver, the term "record player" was increasingly favored by the public. Manufacturers, however, typically advertised such combinations as "radio-phonographs". Portable record players no radio includedwith a latched cover and an integrated power amplifier and loudspeakerwere becoming popular as well, especially in schools and for use by children and teenagers. In the years following the Second World War, as "hi-fi" high-fidelity, monophonic and, later, "stereo" stereophonic component sound systems slowly evolved from an exotic specialty item into a common feature of American homes, the description of the record-spinning what is a phonograph record as a "record changer" which could automatically play through a stacked series of discs or a "turntable" which could hold only one disc at a time what movies are tom hiddleston in common usage.
By the s, the use of a "record changer" was widely disparaged. So, the "turntable" emerged triumphant and retained its position to the present. Through all these changes, however, the discs have continued to be known as "phonograph records" or, much more commonly, simply as "records". Gramophoneas a brand name, was not used in the United States afterand the word quickly fell out of use there, although it has survived in its nickname form, Grammyas the name of the Grammy Awards.
The Grammy trophy itself is a small rendering of a gramophone, resembling a Victor disc machine with a taper arm. Modern amplifier-component manufacturers continue to label the input jack which accepts the output from a modern magnetic pickup cartridge as the "phono" input, abbreviated from "phonograph".
In Australian English"record player" was the term; "turntable" was a more technical term; "gramophone" was restricted to the old mechanical i. Several inventors devised machines to record sound prior to Thomas Edison 's phonograph, Edison being the first to invent a device that could both record and reproduce sound.
Recordings what is a phonograph record with the phonautograph were intended to be visual what is a phonograph record of the sound, but were never sonically reproduced until Cros's paleophone was intended to both record and reproduce sound but had not been developed beyond a basic concept at the time of Edison's successful demonstration of the Phonograph in In this device, sound waves travelling through the air vibrated a parchment diaphragm which was linked to a bristle, and the bristle traced a line through a thin coating of soot on a sheet of paper wrapped around a rotating cylinder.
The sound vibrations were recorded as undulations or other irregularities in the traced line. Scott's phonautograph was intended purely for the visual study and analysis of the tracings. Reproduction of the recorded sound was not possible with the original phonautograph. Inphonautograph recordings made by Scott were played back as sound by American audio historians, who used optical scanning and computer processing to convert the traced waveforms into digital audio files.
These recordings, made circainclude fragments of two French songs and a recitation in Italian. Charles Crosa French poet and amateur scientist, is the first person known to have made the conceptual leap from recording sound as a traced line to the theoretical possibility of reproducing the sound from the tracing and then to devising a definite method for accomplishing the reproduction.
On April 30,he deposited a sealed envelope containing a summary of his ideas with the French Academy of Sciencesa standard procedure used by scientists and inventors to establish priority of conception of unpublished ideas in the event of any later dispute. Cros proposed the use of photoengravinga process already in use to make metal printing plates from line drawings, to convert an insubstantial phonautograph tracing in soot into a groove what does 5th centile mean ridge on a metal disc or cylinder.
This metal surface would then be given the same motion and speed as the original recording surface. A stylus linked to a diaphragm would be made to what is a brief film role called in the groove or on the ridge so that the stylus would be moved back and forth in accordance with the recorded vibrations.
It would transmit these vibrations to the connected diaphragm, and the diaphragm would transmit them to the air. An account of his invention was published on October 10,by which date Cros had devised a more direct procedure: the recording stylus could scribe its tracing through a thin coating of acid-resistant material on a metal surface and the surface could then be etched in an acid bath, producing the desired groove without the complication of an intermediate photographic procedure.
Cros was a poet of meager means, not in a position to pay a machinist to build a working model, and largely content to bequeath his ideas to the public domain free of charge and let others reduce them to practice, but after the earliest what is a phonograph record of Edison's presumably independent invention crossed the Atlantic he had his sealed letter of April 30 opened and read at the December 3, meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, claiming due scientific credit for priority of conception.
Throughout the first decade — of commercial production of the earliest crude disc records, the direct acid-etch method first invented by Cros was used to create the metal master discs, how to use puriclean instant to pass a drug test Cros was not around to claim any credit or to witness the humble beginnings of the eventually rich phonographic library he had foreseen.
He had died in at the age of Thomas Alva Edison conceived the principle dish network remote codes how to recording and reproducing sound between May and July as a byproduct of his efforts to "play back" recorded telegraph messages and to automate speech sounds for transmission by telephone.
The visitor without any ceremony whatever turned the crank, and to the astonishment of all present the machine said: "Good morning. How do you do? How do you like the phonograph? I was experimenting," he said, "on an automatic method of recording telegraph messages on a disk of paper laid on a revolving platen, exactly the same as the disk talking-machine of to-day.
The platen had a spiral groove on its surface, like the disk. Over this was placed a circular disk of paper; an electromagnet with the embossing point connected to an arm traveled over the disk; and any signals given through the magnets were embossed on the disk of paper. If this disc was removed from the machine and put on a similar machine provided with a contact point, the embossed record would cause the signals to be repeated into another wire.
The ordinary speed of telegraphic signals is thirty-five to forty words a minute; but with this machine several hundred words were possible. From my experiments on the telephone I knew of how to work a pawl connected to the diaphragm ; and this engaging a ratchet-wheel served to give continuous rotation to a pulley. This pulley was connected by a cord to a little paper toy representing a man sawing wood. Hence, if one shouted: ' Mary had a little lamb ,' etc.
I reached the conclusion that if I could record the movements of the diaphragm properly, I could cause such records to reproduce the original movements imparted to the diaphragm by the voice, and thus succeed in recording and reproducing the human voice. Instead of using a disk I designed a little machine using a cylinder provided with grooves around the surface. Over this was to be placed tinfoilwhich easily received and recorded the movements of the diaphragm.
I was in the habit of marking the price I would what is a phonograph record on each sketch. If the workman lost, I would pay his regular wages; if he made more than the wages, he kept it. The workman who got the sketch was John Kruesi. I didn't have much faith that it would work, expecting that I might possibly hear a word or so that would give hope of a future for the idea.
Kruesi, when he had nearly finished it, asked what it was for. I told him I was going to record talking, and then have the machine talk back. He thought it absurd. However, it was finished, the foil was put on; I then shouted 'Mary had a little lamb', etc. I adjusted the reproducer, and the machine reproduced it perfectly.
I was never so taken aback in my life. Everybody was astonished. I was always afraid of things that worked the first time. Long experience proved that there were great drawbacks found generally before they could be got commercial; but here was something there was no doubt of. The music critic Herman Klein attended an early demonstration —2 of a similar machine. On the early phonograph's reproductive capabilities he writes "It sounded to my ear like someone singing about half a mile away, or talking at the other end of a big hall; but the effect was rather pleasant, save for a peculiar nasal quality wholly due to the mechanism, though there was little of the scratching which later was a prominent feature of the flat disc.
Recording for that primitive machine was a comparatively simple matter. I had to keep my mouth about six inches away from the horn and remember not to make my voice too what is a phonograph record if I wanted anything approximating to a clear reproduction; that was all. When it was played over to me and I heard my own voice for the first time, one or two friends who were present said that it sounded rather like mine; others declared that they would never have recognised it. I daresay both opinions were correct.
The Argus Melbourne newspaper reported on an demonstration at the Royal Society of Victoria, writing "There was a large attendance of ladies and gentlemen, who appeared greatly interested in the various scientific instruments exhibited. Among these the most interesting, perhaps, was the trial made by Mr. Sutherland with the phonograph, which was most amusing.
Several trials were made, and were all more or less successful. Edison's early phonographs recorded onto a thin sheet of metal, normally tinfoilwhich was temporarily wrapped around a helically grooved cylinder mounted on a correspondingly threaded rod supported by plain and threaded bearings. While the cylinder was rotated and slowly progressed along its axisthe airborne sound vibrated a diaphragm connected to a stylus that indented the foil into the cylinder's groove, thereby recording the vibrations as "hill-and-dale" variations of the depth of the indentation.
Playback was accomplished by exactly repeating the recording procedure, the only difference being that the recorded foil now served to vibrate the stylus, which transmitted its vibrations to the diaphragm and onward into the air as audible sound. Although Edison's very first experimental tinfoil phonograph used separate and somewhat different recording and playback assemblies, in subsequent machines a single diaphragm and stylus served both purposes. One peculiar consequence was that it was possible to overdub additional sound onto a recording being played back.
The recording was heavily worn by each playing, and it was nearly impossible to accurately remount a recorded foil after it had been removed from the cylinder.
In this form, the only practical use that could be found for the phonograph was as a startling novelty for private amusement at home or public exhibitions for profit. Edison's early patents show that he was aware that sound could be recorded as a spiral on a disc, but Edison concentrated his efforts on cylinders, since the groove on the outside of a rotating cylinder provides a constant velocity to the stylus in the groove, which What does a trainee recruitment consultant do considered more "scientifically correct".
Phonograph , also called record player , instrument for reproducing sounds by means of the vibration of a stylus , or needle, following a groove on a rotating disc. A phonograph disc, or record, stores a replica of sound waves as a series of undulations in a sinuous groove inscribed on its rotating surface by the stylus.
When the record is played back, another stylus responds to the undulations, and its motions are then reconverted into sound. Though experimental mechanisms of this type appeared as early as , the invention of the phonograph is generally credited to the American inventor Thomas Edison His first recordings were indentations embossed into a sheet of tinfoil by a vibrating stylus; the tinfoil was wrapped around a cylinder that was rotated as the sounds were being recorded.
A negative was made from the flat master disc, and the negative then used as a mold for making many copies that reproduced the original master disc. In the early s electric loudspeakers were adopted to amplify the volume of reproduced sound. Stereo phonographs capable of the undistorted reproduction of sound became one component of what is known as a high-fidelity sound system. All modern phonograph systems had certain components in common: a turntable that rotated the record; a stylus that tracked a groove in the record; a pickup that converted the mechanical movements of the stylus into electrical impulses; an amplifier that intensified these electrical impulses; and a loudspeaker that converted the amplified signals back into sound.
Phonographs and records were the chief means of reproducing recorded sound at home until the s, when they were largely supplanted by recorded cassettes and compact discs. See also sound recording. Additional Info. More About Contributors Article History. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter.
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The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Britannica Quiz. Have you ever wanted a nonchronological history of technologies that became, during one era or another, part of everyday experience?
And have you wanted that history in the form of a quiz? Test your knowledge. Take this quiz. Thomas Edison's phonograph of By transcribing sound vibrations as a series of tiny pits on the tinfoil surface of a revolving cylinder, this became the first device to play back recorded sound. Emile Berliner's gramophone of By recording sound as an undulating side-to-side groove on a flat disc, Berliner's invention established the basic design for the next years of phonographic record players.
Not shown in the diagram is a separate amplifier module, which would process the electric signal generated by the pickup cartridge and split it between the two speakers.
Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: sound recording: The phonograph disc. This invention not only marked the beginning of the recording industry but also showed that all the acoustical content of musical sounds could be captured in principle, if not in actuality at….
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