Mar 18, · The resultant mountain system exhibits an extraordinary vertical differential of more than 40, feet between the bottom of the Peru-Chile (Atacama) Trench off the Pacific coast of the continent and the peaks of the high mountains within a horizontal distance of less than miles. The tectonic processes that created the Andes have continued to the present day. The Venezuelan Andes—the northernmost range of the system—run parallel to the Caribbean Sea coast in Venezuela west of Caracas, before turning to the southwest and entering Colombia. In Colombia the Andes—which trend generally to the north and south—form three distinct ranges: the Cordilleras Oriental, Central, and Occidental.
They separate a narrow western coastal area from the rest mountaims the continent, affecting deeply the conditions of life within the ranges themselves and in surrounding areas. The Andes contain the highest peaks in the Western Hemisphere. The Andes are not a single line of formidable peaks but rather a succession of parallel and transverse mountain ranges, or cordilleras, and of intervening plateaus and depressions. Distinct eastern and western ranges—respectively named the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental locqted characteristic of most of the system.
It perhaps is more reasonable to ascribe it to the anta of the older Aymara language, loczted connotes copper colour generally. There is no universal agreement about the major north-south subdivisions of the Andes system. For the purposes of this discussion, the how to get an llc in idaho is divided into three broad categories. From south to north these are the Whta Andesconsisting of the Chilean, Fuegian, and Patagonian cordilleras; the Central Andes, including the Peruvian cordilleras; and the Northern Andesencompassing the Ecuadorian, Colombian, and Venezuelan or Caribbean cordilleras.
What country are the andes mountains located Andean mountain system is the result of global plate-tectonic forces during the Cenozoic Era roughly the past 65 million years that built upon earlier geologic activity.
The subsequent breakup of If not celiac then what and of its southern portion, Gondwanadispersed these plates outward, where they began to take the form and position of the present-day continents. The collision or convergence of two what is the metabolic pathway these plates—the continental South American Plate and the oceanic Nazca Plate —gave rise to the orogenic mountain-building activity that produced the Andes.
Many of the rocks comprising the present-day cordilleras are of great age. The weight of these deposits forced a subsidence downwarping of the crust, and the resulting pressure and heat locahed the deposits into more resistant rocks; thus, sandstone, siltstone, and limestone were transformed, respectively, into quartzite, shale, and marble. Approximately million years ago this complex geologic matrix began to be uplifted as the eastern edge of the Nazca Plate was forced under the western edge of the South American Plate i.
This subduction-uplift process was accompanied by the intrusion of considerable quantities of magma from the mantle, first in the form of a volcanic arc along the western edge of the South American Plate and later by the injection of hot solutions into surrounding continental rocks; the latter process created numerous dikes and veins containing concentrations of economically valuable minerals that later were to play a critical role in the human occupation of the Andes.
The intensity of this activity increased during the Cenozoic Era, and the present shape of the cordilleras emerged. The accepted time period for their rise had been from about 15 million to 6 million years ago. However, through the use of more advanced techniques, researchers in the early 21st century were able to determine that the uplift started much earlier, about 25 million years ago.
The resultant mountain system exhibits an extraordinary vertical differential of more than 40, feet between the bottom of the Peru-Chile Atacama Trench off the Pacific coast of the continent and the peaks of the high mountains within a horizontal distance of less than miles.
The tectonic processes that created the Andes have continued to the present day. The system—part of the larger circum-Pacific volcanic chain that often is called the Ring of Fire—remains volcanically active and is subject to devastating earthquakes.
Andes Mountains. Videos Images. Additional Info. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions wuat improve this article ahat login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Norman R. Author of Japanese Colonization in Eastern Paraguay. Britannica Quiz. All About Mountains Quiz. What is the highest mountain range in South America? In which country are the Southern Alps located? Lace your climbing boots tight, because this quiz will test whether you can conquer the highest peaks of knowledge. Behold Andean condors soaring among mountaintops of the Andes, a chain that stretches the entire length of South America. A brief introduction to the Andes Mountains and the Andean condor.
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Nov 27, · Notable Mountains in the Andes. Aconcagua. Mount Aconcagua is the highest peak in the Western and Southern Hemispheres at 6, meters. It is located in Argentina and lies close to Mount Fitz Roy. Ojos del Salado. Illimani. Estimated Reading Time: 7 mins.
The Andes, or Andean Mountains, are the longest mountain range in the world and are located along the western coast of South America , spanning through seven different countries. Several mountain ranges make up the Andes, with their high plateaus and peaks separated by depressions in the land.
There are multiple major cities located on some of the high plateaus of the mountain range. Check out our guide for more information about the Andes Mountains, including its regions, notable mountains and popular hikes. The Andes formed as a result of a convergence between the tectonic plates beneath the Earth's crust.
The subduction of oceanic crust, which is denser than continental crust and therefore sinks, under the South American Plate caused a compression of the western edge and created the enormous mountain range. Although the Andes were only formed about 45 million years ago, the process that created them had already begun million years ago.
The range is classified as a Mesozoic - Tertiary, or Cenozoic, mountain belt located along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which refers to the horse-shoe shaped zone with high levels of seismic and volcanic activity. The highest volcano in the world, the Ojos del Salado, is located in the Andes on the Chile-Argentina border. The Andes Mountains extend from north to south along the western edge of South America.
The range consists of several transverse and parallel mountain ranges, which chain together to form the Andes. These chains of mountains are called 'cordillera', originating from the Spanish word 'cordilla', which means 'rope'. Spanning through Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador , Bolivia, Argentina and Chile , the Andes are a vast and long mountain range and have the highest peak outside of Asia. Therefore, it boasts one of the most incredible South American features.
The Andes have a general width of about km throughout the range. Except for the Bolivian flexure where it expands to about km wide. The Bolivian flexure, or orocline, is where the Andes bends and changes its orientation for northwest to south. The climate of the Andes varies greatly between its different sections. This is due to its location, length, altitude, and proximity to the Pacific Ocean.
The northern sections of the Andes typically have a warm and rainy climate. Therefore, they are designated the Tropical Andes. However, the climatic conditions and temperatures still range drastically depending on altitude.
There is also a big difference between the external slopes, which face the ocean, and the internal slopes. The Dry Andes refer to the Central Andes where the mountain peaks reach very high elevations, resulting in a dry steppe climate with big glacial formations. The Wet Andes is the climatic subregion of the southern sections of the mountain range that span from Chile into Argentina. The glaciers in this climatic subregion are more stable than those in the Dry Andes due to summer rainfall and low thermal fluctuations.
The permanent snow line on the Andes Mountains also varies greatly between the subregions, ranging from 4, - 4, meters in the Tropical Andes to 5, meters in the Dry Andes and then descending to only meters in Tierra del Fuego.
Flora and fauna in the Andes is rich and diverse throughout the mountain range with various species thriving in different regions depending on altitude and the different climatic zones. Different species of plants and animals can be found in the highlands, lowlands and southern forest areas.
In the highlands and on the mountains, the vegetation mostly consists of shrubs, grasses, small trees and cultivated plants like potatoes, tuber, Quinua grain, and various beans. Eucalyptus, Pine trees and several cacti species are also common in the highlands of the Andes. The lowlands and rainforest areas of the Andes feature approximately 2, different species of trees.
The endangered Mahogany Tree can be found here. The lowlands are also used for agricultural purposes with many different crops being grown on the land.
Along the Pacific coastline and in the southern forests, several species of palms grow, as well as Pine, Oak and Olivillo trees.
The Andes Mountains are home to a diverse array of wildlife. It has close to different species of mammals, over 1, bird species, about species of fish and more than reptile species. About two thirds of the various wildlife species are endemic to the Andes region. Llamas, alpacas, Vizcachas, and endangered Andean bears, armadillos and pumas can be found in the highlands, while monkeys, Tamarins, tapirs, jaguars and tigers live within the rainforests.
Pink dolphins, Gray dolphins and manatees can be seen in some of the lagoons and rivers in the Amazon basin. Photo by Celestyn Brozek. It consists of three mountain ranges that lie parallel to one another: the Cordillera Occidental, Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Oriental. These mountain ranges contain many active volcanoes, the lava from which has separated the central plateau into a string of several major basins.
The Cordillera Occidental runs parallel to the coastline and ascends to an elevation of 3, meters. The Cordillera Central Mountain range is the highest and the shortest range in this region, spanning about km. Most of the volcanoes in the region belong to this range including Nevado del Huila at 5, meters.
The Central Andes begin where the mountains get wider, higher and more arid. The mountains in this region stretch from Argentina and Chile into Bolivia and Peru. A high plateau, called the Atacama Plateau or the Altiplano, becomes bordered by two ranges: the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental. The highest navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca with a surface level at 3, meters above sea level, can be found in the basin between the cordilleras.
The mountains are rugged and in this region and cut through by many depressions. Many of these mountains are covered with glaciers, ice fields, lakes, fjords and rivers. The highest peak in the Western and Southern Hemispheres, Mount Aconcagua, is located in Argentina at an elevation of 6, meters above sea level. The Andes are a large mountain range spanning through multiple different countries. Thus, there are many notable mountains and peaks within the range - a hundred of which reach over 6, meters high.
Mount Aconcagua is the highest peak in the Western and Southern Hemispheres at 6, meters. It is located in Argentina and lies close to the Chilean border. Aconcagua is a very popular mountain to climb as it is part of the Seven Summits. The first recorded summit of Mount Aconcagua was done by Matthias Zurbriggen in He was a Swiss guide in a group lead by Edward FitzGerald, who, after eight attempts, never reached the summit.
A Polish team was the first to successfully climb Aconcagua from the eastern side in It lies in the Southern Patagonian Ice Field and reaches an elevation of 3, meters. Ojos del Salado is the highest active volcano in the world. It is a stratovolcano that sits at 6, meters above sea level and is the second highest mountain in the Southern and Western Hemispheres.
Because of its proximity to the Atacama Desert, Ojos del Salado has a very dry and cold climate with snow covering its peak throughout winter.
It also houses a permanent crater lake at an elevation of 6, meters, which could be the highest lake in the world. Photo by Mauricio C Rioja. Illimani is the tallest mountain in the Cordillera Real at an elevation of 6, meters.
Its name translates to "the shining one" and is considered to be the guardian of La Paz in Bolivia. Illimani has four main peaks, the highest of which, Nevado Illimani, is a very popular climb. The Andes are a hikers paradise, with numerous mountains to climb and high peaks to summit. They offer countless stunning views and unique landscapes to explore. Aconcagua is the highest mountain in the Andes, making it a very popular trek. It is considered to be a fairly easily climb considering its height and is a part of the Seven Summits mountaineering challenge.
There are many routes that lead to the summit. While the main trails are technically easy, the high altitude of the mountain makes it a tough and challenging journey.
There are many other routes that are much more difficult and dangerous for even the most experienced hikers. The two most popular main routes are the Normal Route and the Polish Traverse Route , which start on opposite sides of the mountain before joining before the summit. The Inca Trail to Machu Picchu is one of the most famous and popular hikes in the world. The trail showcases the beautiful Peruvian landscape and the tall mountains of the Andes. It generally takes about 4 days to hike the Inca Trail.
The route is approximately 30km long and takes about 3 to 4 days. It is considered to be quite an easy hike so it is perfect for beginners and inexperienced hikers who want to see the natural beauty and breathtaking views of the area.
If you plan to hike in the Andes, make sure that you are adequately insured for up to 4,m. We recommend World Nomads. Use the calculator below to get a quick quote. References : Britannica , Wikipedia.
Updated on November 27, The Andes. Width : km km in the Bolivian flexure Length : 7,km. Area : 3, million sq km. Highest point : Mount Aconcagua at 6,m. Wildlife and Plants. Mountain Regions in the Andes. The Northern Andes. The Central Andes. The Cordillera Central joins the other two ranges as the Andes stretch into Peru.
The Southern Andes. Notable Mountains in the Andes.